MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION AS A BASIS OF PREPARATION OF THE
In this article, the study considers the issue of formation of multilingual education as a condition of self-development of a future specialist. Multilingual education can provide a future specialist with enabling environment, promoting a balance between developing the universal humanistic personal qualities and the ability to implement the specialist’s national, cultural, and ethnic needs in their entirety. It shows the basic principles and objectives of multilingual education and to form a methodical system of development of the multicultural personality. Analysis of the basic concepts of research based on the study of philosophical, psychological and pedagogical, culturological, sociological literature, government documents and the analysis findings of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan, compilation and interpretation of scientific data and modeling. Modern life demands of a person not only to have business and organizational qualities but also the aptitude to take his bearings in a changing environment, the ability to communicate, collaborate, build a career to be a multicultural personality. Cultural integration, exchange of experience, high intellectual demands, a high level of competition, the ability to interact with a wide range of people are the critical factors of success in our modem life.
Key words: Multicultural personality, principle, multilingual environment, multilingual education, formation.
Today, in the age of globalization and technologisation, intensification of the search for effective conditions, mechanisms for education of the younger generation that would be able to interact with other cultures is being observed. Multicultural education is an effective tool for training the younger generation in the conditions of the interconnected and interdependent world.
Multilingual education is the basis of the formation of the multicultural personality, whose degree of maturity largely determines the positive pattern of personal self-realization in the modern conditions of social relations, competitiveness and social mobility. It should be noted that in the present context the mode of life is unified in a certain way, many national differences are blended, a person loses his roots and moral experience of previous generations loses its value. Therefore, an educator faces a most important task to use all the unique experience and knowledge of the cultural traditions of peoples, universal human values and world culture in creating a supportive educational environment contributing to the formation of the socially active personality. In other words, multilingual education is necessary to form a competitive specialist, a communicative positive personality, capable of active and effective life in the multiethnic and multicultural environment, who has developed a sense of understanding and respect for other cultures and the ability to live in peace and harmony.
Nowadays, knowledge of several languages is necessary skill and the requirement of present. Such phenomenon is explained by globalization strengthening and development of international relations. In the Republic of Kazakhstan, one of the main priorities in case of creation to safe the future is knowledge of several languages. Purposeful, complete comprehension of multilingual education phenomenon began quite recently, apart from development of effective methods teaching foreign languages. Until recently, many works of researchers still were concentrated generally on problems of bilingual education (studying of the native language and foreign) as to the most often found form of multilingual training. The processes connected with development of the third language and, especially, still bigger quantity of languages, are least studied and became a research object only recently – in connection with plans of the European commission to legitimize trilingual education.
Trinity of languages – is the important factor of a public consent. For the modern Kazakhstan citizens knowing of three languages – is a condition of own wellbeing. The variety of cultures and languages, as well as their equal coexistence, is the main property of Kazakhstan, at the same time efficiency of trilingual is possible only on condition of the commonly accepted ideological basis: Kazakh is a state language, Russian– is language of international communication, English – is the key to knowledge as worldwide language.
For the first time the idea about introduction of trilingual (or a three languages), i.e. development by citizens of RK of the Kazakh, Russian and English languages, was voiced by N. Nazarbayev in October, 2006 on XІІ sessions of Assembly of Kazakhstan people. And already in the message of 2007 «New Kazakhstan in the new world» N. Nazarbayev suggested to begin stepby-step implementation of the cultural project «Trinity of languages: «Kazakhstan shall be perceived around the world as the highly educated country which population uses three languages.
They are: Kazakh – as a state language, Russian – as language of international communication and English – language of successful integration into global economy» [1, 2].
Realization of trilingual politics…In the dictionary of linguistic terms by T. V. Zherebilo the following definition «is given to trilingual is a functioning of three languages within a territorial community: the states, the region, the city, the settlement where each of languages is correlated with a certain sphere of communication. It is the possession of person of three languages within his communicative opportunities» [2, 280].
In the dictionary of sociolinguistics terms by V.Yu. Mikhalchenko it is given similar to the previous definition, accompanying him with an example «trilingua is a functioning of three languages within a territorial community (the state, the region, the city, the settlement). Usually each of these languages is correlated with a certain sphere of communication. For example, in the village Gunzib (Republic of Dagestan) the Georgian, Avarian and Russian languages function. The Georgian language is used in family and household communication, in traditional economic activity and as supportive application in primary education, in the religious sphere. The Avarian language is used as the tutorial in initial, and Russian at high school. Russian is language of formal office-work. Means of international communication are depend on the communicative partner as the Avarian or Russian languages [3, 312]. According to B. Hasanuly, trilingua – «is the alternative to three languages in heterogeneous society that representatives of one ethnos» [4, 384].
Accession of Kazakhstan to Bologna Process played a significant role in development of trilingua in the Republic of Kazakhstan. According to the principles of the Bologna declaration, in Kazakhstan the system of polylingual education in case of which on an equal basis with the Kazakh and Russian languages also English shall be used shall be realized. The purpose of Bologna Process is creation of a strong competitive education system in the world. Requirement of knowing Kazakh, Russian and English languages create base for trilingual education.
However in case of language planning is necessary to consider the fact that the bilingualism in the Republic of Kazakhstan is the natural process proceeding among all population of the republic irrespective of age, nationalities, and three languages is the process which is regulated and created «from above». Trilingual education assumes that training of foreign language, in particular to English, is the major factor determining access to information in language of the international communication and computer technologies, an exit of our specialists to wide international level, promoting more successful integration of Kazakhstan economy in the world. Further it will provide development of domestic science and technology according to universal standards. As for multilingualism, is one more fine opportunity to rally society, and right strategy to weave the multinational people of our Republic in a whole. It definitely excludes danger of forced assimilation of various nationalities since multilingualism is the solution of the specified problem, and the possibility of education in the native language serves as a factor of maintenance and development of identity of national Diasporas.
On October 29, 2010, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan issued the decree on the State program of development and functioning of languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020. Which is about development of languages in new conditions, enhancement is standard — the legal base directed to strengthening of the institutional status of Kazakh as a state, to preserving sociolinguistics activity of Russian and to development of English as integration tools in world space. Today it is possible to speak with confidence about completion of work on institutional ensuring implementation with this program which basic competences are three languages, the Eurasian polyculture, communicativeness and a technocracy with confidence .
The state program of development of languages is carried out in three stages. At the first stage (2011-2013), the package of measures, directed to improvement of norm-legal and methodological base of further functioning and development of languages is carried out. Within the second stage, (2014-2016) realization of a complex of practical measuresis planned to implement of new technologies and methods in the field of studying and application of a state language, and also preservation of language variety. At the third stage (2017-2020) fixing of result through the system monitoring of state language degree demand in all spheres of public life, quality of its appropriate application and level of proficiency at further preservation of positions of other languages.
Currently, multilingual education in the Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the main trends in the system of higher education. And a higher education institute is an important stage in the process of formation and development of the personality in the multicultural environment where the core values and principles of life are intentionally formed. This institution can provide a student with an environment that allows a balance between the universal humanist qualities of the personality and the ability to complete the implementation of its national, cultural, linguistic and ethnic needs.
In this regard, one of the important tasks of universities is expanding a multicultural component of the content of higher education, enabling future specialists to master the world’s cultural heritage and foreign languages. Knowing a foreign language provides a direct access to the culture and social experience of other countries as well as calls for a cultural dialogue in the educational process, offering more opportunities for cross-cultural interaction.
Modem education needs a conveyor of knowledge, who is able not only to think but also conceive that is, to generate own meanings of teaching. The self-evolution of an educator, his professional and linguistic self-development which is, in our view, the process of qualitative, purposeful, conscious change of his personality sphere is possible only as a result of reflections on the meaning of being in the profession .
Students from different cultural, ethnic and social groups attend higher educational institutions. The vocational training provided at the institutions and aimed at the training of a future specialist of any sphere must also be focused on understanding the entire whole, not only mastering the professional knowledge and skills but also on creating and improving professionally important personal qualities that are an integral part of a specialist personality. In this regard, the formation of the personality in multicultural environment plays an important role in the training of qualified specialists.
In the context of globalization, the linguistic sphere of public life is susceptible to significant change to the maximum extent. This can be explained by to the fact that the pace and nature of the transformation of political, economic and cultural systems are largely dependent on linguistic, ethnic and cultural, social and other concrete historical conditions that are specific to each particular country. Remaining a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state, Kazakhstan is experiencing a complicated and contradictory period of its cultural and linguistic development, which is evidenced by the linguistic situation, the characteristic of which is given in the concept of the language policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. It should be noted that almost all the documents in the domain of the language policy present a core idea of the need to master several languages.
Multilingual education is the foundation of formation of the multilingual personality whose degree of well formedness in many respects determines the positive nature of personal selfrealization of a person in the present conditions of social relations, his competitiveness and social mobility.
The contemporary language situation in Kazakhstan has attached special significance to the problems of the education system. This feature is associated with the generation of the idea of ‘Trinity of languages’ which was put forward by President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev in 2004. The public response, including the scientific and pedagogical community, proved to be controversial: from criticizing for no reason to seeking the theoretical and methodological foundations of the idea and developing the mechanisms for its implementation.
Despite the fact that the essence of this idea was explained concisely and very clearly, its interpretation in the criticism is defined as the dominance of the English language. Noting the groundlessness and destructiveness of this criticism, we believe that attention should be paid to the essence of the concept of ‘trinity.’ In our understanding, its essence is expressed as follows: positivity of the development of trilingualism is possible for the Kazakh community provided there is a single political, ideological and cultural platform. And this platform has already been defined in the explanation of the essence of the ‘Trinity of languages’ project by its creator: Kazakh shall be studied as the official language, Russian shall be studied as the language of interethnic communication and English shall be studied as the language of successful integration into the global economy.
The factors of multilingual education in a certain sense act as derived values of its bases. If the bases determine (or explain) the potentiality for the implementation of educational activities in the field of multilingual education, the factors can directly affect them. Multilingual education is a focused organized, triunique process of learning, education and development of an individual as the multilingual personality based on the simultaneous acquisition of several languages as a ‘fragment’ of different cultures of humanity. The content of multilingual education should include systematic knowledge and skills in the field of native and official languages as well as in the field of one or more foreign languages in accordance with the cross-cultural paradigm of modem linguistic education. The fundamental ideas in the implementation of multilingual education in the context of intercultural communication are:
1 Motivating and encouraging the use of different languages in accordance with the needs and interests of students
2 Forming the skills of cross-cultural communication
3 A strategy of continuous learning the features of certain cultures and peculiarities of their interaction through the language
4 Going beyond one’s own culture and acquisition of the qualities of the cultures mediator without losing own cultural identity
5 The ability of learners to create a single meaning of current developments with a conversation partner, representing a different culture, on the basis of knowledge of the various cultures and skills in both discussing these differences, mediating between cultures and changing the learners’ own attitude towards them
6 Reliance on the culturological and linguistic cross-cultural knowledge of learners
7 Provision of the language studying content in accordance with the socio-cultural situation in a particular country (or region) [7, 6-12].
We are considering the language as a factor of culture, firstly because it is its integral part which we have inherited from our ancestors, secondly, the language is the main instrument through which we learn the culture; thirdly, it is the most important of all the phenomena of cultural order as it is an integral part of culture.
Nowadays, multilingual education is a powerful factor and effective mechanism for:
improving the competitiveness of the native language due to the fact that it is activated in the field of receiving cultural and other various, significant information; strengthening the status of the Russian language as the official language of interstate relations in the CIS countries (there is an objective necessity of functioning a common intermediate language and due to the historical factor, only the Russian language can perform this function).
One of the objectives of education is the task of familiarizing the younger generation with global values, forming teenagers’ ability to communicate and interact with representatives of other cultures in the universal space. Since the role of languages in the modem world is very important, the issue of teaching languages and improving the language proficiency of students and schoolteachers, who need to know their own language and English, the language of international communication are being raised before the community. The main objective facing school teachers is the education of the multicultural personality, knowing the customs and traditions of its people, having a command of several languages, being capable of providing communicative and activity operations in the three languages in all situations and striving for self-development and selfimprovement .
The language policy of Kazakhstan puts forward ‘reasonable transformation of language culture on the basis of equitable use of three languages: the official language, the ones of interethnic and international communication,’ and allows us to can out a gradual entry into the mobile mega cultural world [9, 129]. Being proficient in the Kazakh, Russian and foreign languages is becoming an integral component of personal and professional activity of the person in the modem society. All of this taken together leads to the need for a large number of citizens who can speak the three languages practically and professionally and, therefore, gain a real chance to take a more prestigious position in society, both in social and professional term.
At the moment, the issue of multilingual education centered on the individual with a multilingual and multicultural competence is urgent for us. Multilingual education is an important part of modem general education and contributes to students mastering other languages assimilation cultural values and traditions of the peoples of the world, their lifestyle as well as to education of youth in the spirit of respect for the worldview values of other nations. Multilingual education is the best tool for learning the native language, development of dialectical thinking, broadening of outlook and forming the multicultural personality. The objective of multilingual education is:
8 Forming the concept of multilingualism in the individual
9 Cultivating tolerant attitude to the linguistic and cultural differences, overcoming negative ethno-social stereotypes
10 Developing language skills with native speakers of different cultures
11 Forming the culture of interethnic communication in the individual
As previously noted, multilingual education is the best tool for learning the native language, development of dialectical thinking, broadening of outlook and forming the multicultural personality. What is the multicultural personality? According to many characteristics given, it can be concluded that the ‘multicultural personality’ is an individual with developed linguistic consciousness. Such a personality must have vivid artistic and aesthetic consciousness, thinking, imagination, subtle feelings and love of beauty.
Today, no country in the international arena can remain in the linguistic isolation and it is forced to use foreign languages. According to UNESCO experts, the minimum number of languages that a person should know in the third millennium will be at least three.
‘As many languages you know as many times you are a human being’. This ancient wise saying is currently important. Modem Kazakhstan and the world are rapidly changing before our eyes. Due to the development of science and technology, the concepts of time and space are disappearing. All borders are becoming less distinct and the world that used to consist of the closed little worlds of separate states is becoming a single, interconnected organism. We are entering the era of globalization of economy and knowledge and lifelong learning. Therefore, not only the future but also the present society demands of us knowledge of foreign languages. The modern world increasingly needs people who can think creatively, analyze and understand others. And a foreign language is one of the best means to develop these skills.
1 Nazarbayev N.A. Kazakhstankaya Pravda, 2007, 33, p. 2.
2 Zherebilo T.V. Sociolinguistics: dictionary-handbook, Nazran: Piligrim, 2011, 280 p.
3 Mikhalchenko V.Yu., Kozhemyakina V.A., Kolesnik N.G. Sociolinguistics terms dictionary, Moscow: Linguistics institution RAN, 2006, 312 p.
4 Hasanuly B. Languages of Kazakhstan nations: from strategy of silence to strategy of development: socio-psycholinguistic aspects, Almaty: Arda, 2007, 384 p.
5 State program of education system development of the Republic of Kazakhstan 2011 – 2020, Decree of president of the Republic of Kazakhstan December 7, 2010, No. 118, adilet.zan.kz /rus/docs/U1000001118
6 Zhetpisbayeva, B.A., 2008. Multilingual Education: Theory and Methodology. Bilim Publishing House, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
7 Makaev, V.V., 1999. Multicultural education is an actual problem of modem science. Pedagogy, 4: p.6-12
8 Kim, V.A. and F.E. Uteulieva, 2010. Guidance on Multicultural Education. Taraz Publishing and Printing, Taraz, Kazakhstan
9 Samasheva, S.K., T.G. Kholyavina and J.K. Azirbaeva, 2006. Development of the Multilingual Identity through Language Arts. International SPC, Manila, Philippines, Pages: 129.
ПОЛИЯЗЫЧНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ КАК ОСНОВА ПОДГОТОВКИ
В соответствии с вышеизложенным изучение иностранного языка помогает подготовить функционально грамотную многоязычную и многокультурную личность и создать условия для социального, интеллектуального и личностного развития индивидуальности родного языка. Таким образом, развитие общества диктует все более высокие требования к подготовке специалиста. Интенсивное обновление производственных технологий, интеграция научных знаний, увеличение количества сложных научных и практических проблем междисциплинарного характера ставят задачу подготовки специалистов, которые могли бы быть творческой и постоянно меняющейся профессиональной деятельности. “Идеалом нашего общества должен стать казахстанец, знающий свои историю, язык, культуру, при этом современный, владеющий иностранными языками, имеющий передовые и глобальные взгляды. Тогда и возникнет настоящее гражданское общество. Человек любой этнической группы сможет выбрать любую работу вплоть до избрания Президентом страны. Казахстанцы станут единой нацией”. — Н.А.Назарбаев.
КӨПТІЛДІ БІЛІМ БЕРУ НЕГІЗІ РЕТІНДЕ БӘСЕКЕГЕ ҚАБІЛЕТТІ
Жоғарыда келтірілген пікірлерге сәйкес шет тілін оқуы функционалды сауатты көптілді және көпмәдениетті тұлғаны қалыптастыруға көмектеседі және әлеуметтік, интеллектуалды және жеке ана тілінің дамуына жағдай жасауға ықпал етеді. Сондықтан, қоғамның дамуы мамандықтарды даярлауға одан да жоғары талаптар қажет етеді. Қарқынды өндіріс технологиялардың жаңартылуы, ғылыми білімінің интеграциясы, пәнаралық бағытындағы күрделі ғылыми және практикалық мәселелерді ұлғайту барысында шығармашыл және үнемі кәсіптік құзыреттілігін өзгертуге дайын мамандықтарды даярлауға міндет етудеміз. «Өзінің тарихын, тілін, мәдениетін білетін, сондай-ақ заманына лайық, шет тілдерін меңгерген, озық әрі жаһандық көзқарасы бар қазақстандық біздің қоғамымыздың идеалына айналуға тиіс. Сонда ғана нағыз азаматтық қоғам құрылады. Кез келген этникалық топтың өкілі кез келген жұмысты таңдай алады, тіпті Президент болып сайлануға да мүмкіндігі болады. Қазақстандықтар біртұтас ұлтқа айналады». — Н.Ә. Назарбаев.