MODERN TECHNOLOGIES OF TEACHING LISTENING IN A FOREIGN
The article considers the main directions in improving of educational technology when working with text, learning by ear and methods of increasing the efficiency of teaching listening in a foreign audience. The effectiveness of the training depends on the adaptation to the level of perception of educational material to the trainees so one of the most promising directions in the development of educational technologies is the modeling of audiovisual teaching with the ability to adapt to each student. In order to build the model of the learning process taking into account simultaneous audio and video information perception have determined the influence of the impact speed of the remembering and forgetting of information on the quality of teaching and the process of mastering of educational material in the classroom for listening .
The main objective of pedagogical science development in high school is finding ways to improve vocational training. For the modern pedagogical practice of teaching in the universities, optimization of educational process is especially important in connection with the curriculum change, new requirements to improve the educational process. In the practice trials emphasis is shifted from learning to read and write to learn the skills of speaking and listening. Without the formed skills and abilities of listening as an integral part of communicative competence necessary for full-fledged international creative and scientific contacts. Thus, listening has become one of the most important aspects of learning a foreign language at the modern stage of globalization, humanization and education. Because the old program of teaching foreign languages has not paid to the aspect of «listening» dealt with properly, and in the methodological literature of the study devoted to this problem, are presented insufficiently. To improve the process of teaching listening comprehension of foreign speech development and analysis of technology to solve this problem, it seems timely and relevant.
Key words: audio text, listening, audio-perception, audio-visual training, Russian as foreign.
These days the main direction of improving educational technology is to optimize and increase the efficiency of the learning process. The effectiveness of training depends on the adaptation to the level of perception of educational material for trainees. Therefore, one of the most promising directions in the development of educational technologies is the modeling of audiovisual teaching with the ability to adapt to each student. In order to build the model of the learning process taking into account simultaneous audio and video information perception is required to determine the influence of the impact speed of the remembering and forgetting the information on the quality of teaching and the process of learning. This was accomplished through the analysis of various auxiliary learning tools in the field of perception.
Listening is one of the most important skills that students get before school. For the foreigners to listen and see there are two ways of obtaining information about the outside world. But as to see maybe not everything and seeing all of them understand the skill of listening becomes extremely important crumbs. Students read stories, tell fascinating stories and answer the eternal «why?» cultivating this skill. However, once the oral reading in elementary school, in fact, ends and exercises the perception of information aurally. In the foreground reading is silently and memorization. Listening at best be conducted in the foreign language lessons, and according to researchers, the visual perception is more developed than hearing [1, 240].
All the studies carried out to determine patterns related to listening skills were carried out mainly by means of learners of foreign language. However, it helped to better understand the functioning of the brain and the perception of the native language. For listening answer cognitive strategies. They communicate just heard and listened to, determine the concentration and attentiveness. In the native language of these actions occur instinctively, and listening in foreign characteristic questions (either itself or in tasks): «What I just heard?», «How is it connected with already existing knowledge?», «What I remember from listening?». However, the study showed that regular exercise in one’s native language also helps to develop conscious listening, and therefore remember more of what he heard.
In order not to lose the acquired in the childhood ability, it is important to integrate exercises to develop listening skills in the school curriculum. However, do not have to spend boring listening with tests after the teacher read the text. Come to the aid of the genres of radio journalism. Various programs, programs, conversations, and interviews can be so fascinating that will awaken the interest of even the most passive students. In addition, do not forget the genre of the radio play: professional actors read works of literature will be much more alive and full. So the perfect solution wills audio book: especially this method is good for the study of poetry and the development of the students’ artistic abilities. Overall, training audio perception can be integrated into most subjects of the school curriculum: literature, language, history and culture.
The ability to listen and to hear goes hand in hand with the ability to speak. Organizing a small discussion on the topic of audio, the discussion in class will help students competently to build speech. To enhance creative potential, you can record various podcasts or interviews on the topic of the lesson. This will develop not less useful the ability to listen critically and to analyze.
The skill of listening carefully useful to all without exception: it affects the perception of classroom, lecture, workshop, will be important both at work and in school. The ones who teach the younger generation should pay attention to ways to develop listening skills and to integrate them in the learning process.
The human brain has certain ways of perception of reality that you need to remember when designing and using audiovisual training. Excelling in capabilities of modern computers, the brain is different in that it has a tendency to focus on certain objects and to exclude from the attention, not of interest to him, that is, to allocate the main thing [4, 59]. This tendency is subject to certain laws, without knowing which and not using in their work, the teacher will not be able to realize the full potential of the students.
In the process of evolution the human brain has developed certain reactions (at the subconscious level) on different types of stimulation and in the certain factors the object can cause a reaction of rejection. That is wrong emphases on visual material or in an educational film can evoke completely opposite reactions from the learner.
Large objects (and pseudo maximized) sharper perceived, but the stronger the reaction to the object, the stronger the rejection in case of discrepancy image goals. Color in certain proportions can create a mood and draw attention, but when these ratios increase may be perceived by us as dangerous and can cause a reaction of disbelief.
Among similar objects, attention is focused on the object, which differs in some qualities. So, for example, as one black object stands out among the group of white, large among small, color among black and white moving among stationary, etc. the human eye has a certain angle, which ensures a favorable field of perception. The maximum angle of perception of the eye 57°, the optimum is at 35-40°. These data allow us to determine the most favorable size of the displayed image for different distances of viewing. For example, if the computer screen is at the distance of 35-40 cm from the human eye, the optimal image size is 15-18 cm in height and 10-14 cm in width (takes into account binocular vision).
It is important not only favorable, but the primary elements in accordance with the laws of composition. Our view focuses on relatively small area of the image, and the rest, closer to the edges, as if blurs. The brain just filters out that information to neglect this feature when building visual material is impossible.
Here is an example: you have placed in the slide presentation material, containing a large number of animated images, scrolling text, each of which actively attracts attention. The brain focuses on this information, as the nature has made it the priority of moving objects and their images over a stationary. But other objects are also actively demand attention. As a result, the brain of the observer is not able to allocate the main object in the background is secondary. What he saw is subconsciously occurs the alarm reaction and rejection.
Educational movie, one of the kinds of scientific movie, is used as auxiliary tool in the learning process. Usually applied in cases where the training material is unavailable to perception under normal conditions of employment. With cinema you can slow down the rapid processes and thus make them visible, to penetrate phenomena that are hidden from view enlarge the tiniest object, to take the viewer to other countries, to make visible the generalization and abstraction through the moving image (animation).
Training films are classified according to the subject matter of the discipline and its methods, age of pupils, degree of scientific proficiency (if it is an adult audience) and didactic purposes. In connection with the latter are distinguished: the films performing the function of a short kin prom; integral films, the task of which is to explain a particular issue of the curriculum; movies, learn production skills (to demonstrate special training stands); instructional films explaining the meaning and significance of production rules; introduction, or entrance, — to acquaint with the main problems of the discipline, its goals and objectives; the final (for the whole discipline or its section) that is used for repetition of material, mainly relating to the most difficult-to-understand questions.
The cycle of educational films (the film class) is used to illuminate all the major issues of the discipline. Each gynophobia meets the objectives of the most complete treatment of the subject with minimal study time. Educational films differ in genre variety, which is mainly determined by the cinematic method of solution.
Modern society connects prospects of its development with the improvement of high technologies, including information technologies occupy a special place because you take on not only the communicative and informative, but also educational and training functions. Activity in this area is aimed at forming knowledge system of the whole world. Most of the media and communications are exist mostly in audio-visual form.
Under audiovisual perception it is refers to the perception of reality created by the authors and expressed in the audiovisual space-time images recorded on film or on other types of media in the form of frames, and sequentially connected in thematic or semantic unit. Audio-visual form perception is the combination of various varieties of the image sequence with coherent oral speech. The most characteristic and indicative of patterns of integrated audiovisual perception is a scientific and educational film, as its content basis is not only the image of the video, but coherent oral speech in the form of narration, which directly aims to shape adequate perception of coherent audiovisual messages. Review of the problem in this perspective is especially important for effective use of scientific and educational films in education.
According to many researchers (George Gibson, N. I. Zhinkin, A. G. Sokolov), it is more informative than the image of the video, as informative well beyond the scope of visual perception. The images that arise in the perception of speech, have a high degree of individuality, are better preserved in memory, as their formation requires great activity, and their degree of sustainability, meaningfulness and connectivity depends on the depth of understanding and assimilation of the speech material. In addition, when viewing the video the person receives images of perception in finished form, because due to high speed of presentation of images is not enough time for the formation of images of representation, and they are not necessary, because the images of the video have an extremely vivid and rich content. In the perception of the film’s visual and verbal materials are combined, which requires mental efforts and, above all, the best, quite slow-paced presentation of both stimuli, because when a quick perception of the material (orally and visually) deep understanding of information obtained because of the constant switching attention from visual elements to verbal messages.
In the study, performed by laboratory experiment, were involved 318 subjects, students of aged 15-23 years attending educational institutions (secondary school, high school, College, vocational) and learning profiles (mathematical, legal, economic, scientific, humanitarian). As experimental material were selected six scientific and educational films: two – the production of Russian television companies, one of British TV production company commissioned by the Russian television, three – production of foreign company. For the experimental situation of each group of subjects were presented by two fragments of the stimulus material. After the perception of each of these fragments the subjects had reproduced it in writing. The final results were obtained by comparative qualitative and quantitative, including statistical analysis of performance of audiovisual perception for immediate and delayed playback.
Theoretical analysis of approaches to the consideration of the nature is integrated audiovisual perception as well as the results of the laboratory experiment allow to draw the following conclusions.
1. The perception of scientific and educational film image of the video sequence because of its brightness causes activation of involuntary attention, which entails frequent switching of attention from verbal to visual range, violating the continuity of speech perception. Therefore, the content of speech is perceived by individual fragments, which prevents the formation of holistic way of original content. This reduces the amount of abstract content perceived audiovisual message.
2. The experimentally determined forms of audio-visual perception consisting in coherent or fragmentary perception. The first is characterized by the consistent growth of the individual elements of the content, which involved examining each of them as a direct logical development of the previous one. Fragmentary view of the perception of recreated content reproduce of his fragments as the series of separate representations without defining their holistic and coherent content structure, logical sequence and differentiation in the degree of importance.
3. Experimentally identified ways to build a complete image in audiovisual perception, manifested in the choice of interpretive or emotional-evaluative substantive components to achieve image integrity. Interpretive method for constructing is the complete image represented by the image creation process of perceived material on the basis of experience of their cognitive activities and prior knowledge in this area. For emotional-evaluative method is characterized by the arbitrary creation of its own version of the message (often very distant from the original) due to the «attribution» bringing a message of imaginary content based on the emotional and personal aspect of his perception.
4. The study found in the audiovisual perception of priority fragmentary view of perception and emotional evaluation of the method of constructing the integral image over a connected view of perception and interpretative method of constructing an integral image.
5. Features of audiovisual perception preserved in all groups of subjects, regardless of the type of educational institution, field of study and place of residence.
6. Effective use of scientific and educational films in the learning process is possible when taking into account the psychological peculiarities of their perception, as well as in teaching students skills comprehension of coherent oral speech in complex audiovisual complex.
Thus, the theoretical analysis showed that during the perception of coherent oral speech, combined with the visuals in the human mind there are two types of images: images of perception, derived from ready created by the authors of the film image, and the images of representation generated by the individual in the perception of connected speech, that is narration. As you know, the images of perception are more resilient and vibrant than the images of the view, so the perception of visuals in scientific and educational film is dominant in the mind, which can hinder a holistic, adequate and conscious perception of subject content coherent oral statements.
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2 Erchak, N.T. Psihologiya professionalnoy rechi uchitelya: Ucheb.-metod. posobie. -Minsk: MGLU, 2004. — 143 s.
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Г.К. Ихсангалиева, A.A. Раимбекова, Ж.С. Нуржанова
СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ОБУЧЕНИЯ АУДИРОВАНИЮ В
В статье рассмотрены основные направления в области совершенствования образовательных технологий при работе с аудиотекстом, восприятие материала на слух и методы повышения эффективности обучения аудированию в иностранной аудитории. Эффективность процесса обучения зависит от адаптации к уровню восприятия учебного материала обучаемым, поэтому одним из наиболее перспективных направлений в области развития образовательных технологий является моделирование процесса аудиовизуального обучения с возможностью адаптации для каждого обучаемого. В целях построения данной модели процесса обучения с учетом одновременного аудио и видео восприятия информации было определено влияние воздействия скорости запоминания и забывания информации на качество обучения и процесс усвоения учебного материала на занятиях по аудированию.
Основной задачей развития педагогической науки в высшей школе является поиск путей совершенствования профессиональной подготовки специалистов. Для современной педагогической практики преподавания в вузах оптимизация учебного процесса становится особенно актуальной в связи с изменением учебных программ, новыми требованиями совершенствования образовательного процесса. В практике РКИ акцент перенесен с обучения чтению и письму на обучение умениям говорения и аудирования. Без сформированных навыков и умений аудирования как составной части коммуникативной компетентности невозможны полноценные международные творческие и научные контакты. Таким образом, аудирование стало одним из важнейших аспектов обучения иностранному языку на современном этапе глобализации, гуманитаризации и гуманизации образования. Поскольку старая программа обучения иностранным языкам не уделяла аспекту «аудирование» должного внимания, то и в методической литературе исследования, посвященные этой проблеме, представлены недостаточно полно. Для совершенствования процесса обучения аудированию иноязычной речи разработка и анализ технологии, позволяющей решить эту задачу, представляется своевременной и актуальной.
Г.К. Ихсангалиева, A.A. Раимбекова, Ж.С. Нуржанова
ШЕТЕЛДІК АУДИТОРИЯДА ТЫҢДАЛЫМДЫ ОҚЫТУДЫҢ ҚАЗІРГІ
Мақалада шетелдік аудиторияда тыңдалымды оқытудың тиімділігін арттыру әдістемесі және материалды түсініп-тыңдай білу, сонымен қатар аудиомәтінмен жұмыс істеуде білім беру технологиясын арттыру саласындағы негізгі бағыттар қарастырылған. Оқыту үдерісінің тиімділігі тіл үйренушінің оқу материалын қабылдауы мен бейімделу деңгейіне байланысты, сондықтан неғұрлым болашағы бар бағыттардың бірі білім беру технологияларын дамыту саласындағы әр тіл үйренушіні бейімдеу мүмкіндігімен аудиовизуалды курсты оқыту үдерісін модельдеу болып табылады. Бұл модельді құру мақсатында оқу үрдісін ескере отырып, тыңдалым сабақтарында бір мезгілде аудио және бейне ақпаратты қабылдаудың белгіленген әсері, әсер ету жылдамдығы, ақпаратты есте сақтау және ұмыту оқу үдерісі мен оқу материалын меңгеру сапасына әсер етеді. Педагогикалық ғылымды дамытудың негізгі міндеті жоғары мектепте кәсіби мамандарды дайындауды жетілдірудің жолын іздеу болып табады.
Орыс тілін шет тілі ретінде оқыту тәжірибесінде негізгі акцент жазылым мен оықылымды оқыту емес, сөйлесім мен тыңдалымға баса назар аударылады. Тыңдалымда коммуникативтік құзыреттіліктің құрамдас бөлігі мен қалыптасқан дағды мен ептіліксіз ғылыми және халықаралық шығармашылық байланыстың болмуы мүмкін емес. Осылайша тыңдалым, жаһандану, гуманитаризация мен білім беруді ізгілендірудің қазіргі деңгейінде шет тілін оқытудың ең қажетті аспектілерінің бірі болды. Бұрынғы білім берудің ескі бағдарламаларында шет тілін оқытуда тыңдалым аспектісіне аса көңіл бөлмей, сонымен қоса осы пәнге және методикалық әдебиеттерді зерттеуге тиісті деңгейде қаралмаған және де нақты көрсетілмеген. Шетелдік аудиторияда тыңдалымды оқытудың үдерісін жетілдіру үшін, сонымен бірге осы мәселелерді шешуге мүмкіндік беретін технологияларды талдау мен дайындау мерзімді әрі өзекті болып отыр.