Suyuberdieva A.A.1, Arslanova B.K. 2, Abdulla X.2
1Can.ped.sci., senior teacher, M. Auezov SKSU, Shymkent, Kazakhstan
2 senior lecturer, International University Silkway, Shymkent, Kazakhstan
2 Master student, International University Silkway, Shymkent, Kazakhstan
ENGLISH TOPONYMY AND ITS CULTURAL VALUE
Abstract: It is difficult to imagine the modern world without geographical names. Every toponymy bears the various information: historical, geographical, linguistic as place names are certificates of historical conditions of epoch when they arose, were formed and extended in those or other countries.The term “toponym” means the proper noun, the name of any geographical object: rivers, lakes, seas, cities, villages, mountains, islands, streets, squares etc. They appear and function in close connection with nation’s geography, history and ethnography. That is why toponymy presents the valuable material for linguistics, as it is not only the reflection of language, but also a reliable source for its history. Toponyms provide us with the data about former migrations of one or another nation, about contacts with other nations, and about the pattern of human settlement on new territory, about geographical peculiarities of this territory.
Key words: toponymy, modern world, foreign languages, to learn, historical research, translators, to applay
Learning foreign languages is not only about learning the language itself but as well as about learning all aspects of this language. Nowadays it is clearly seen that the learning foreign languages encompasses the cultural aspect of the language. Moreover, the need of learning the cultural aspect of the language and the national peculiarities of the target language is growing. The consideration of such aspect allowed us to come close to the languages and become aware of national and geographical and historical peculiarities of English people. The knowledge of the lingo cultural aspects of the language is thought as the crucial side to the improvement of the knowledge of the target language. The object of the cultural linguistics is the system of language with consideration its cultural aspect, the national mentality of the nation and the toponymy which is part of national world view. In addition nowadays the English language has popularity in all spheres of life. There are changes in our life and new demands to specialists in our country who is required a good knowledge of English language .
It is difficult to imagine the modern world without geographical names. Every toponymy
bears the various information: historical, geographical, linguistic as place names are certificates of historical conditions of epoch when they arose, were formed and extended in those or other countries.The term “toponym” means the proper noun, the name of any geographical object: rivers, lakes, seas, cities, villages, mountains, islands, streets, squares etc. They appear and function in close connection with nation’s geography, history and ethnography. That is why toponymy presents the valuable material for linguistics, as it is not only the reflection of language, but also a reliable source for its history. Toponyms provide us with the data about former migrations of one or another nation, about contacts with other nations, and about the pattern of human settlement on new territory, about geographical peculiarities of this territory. The toponyms themselves are the evidence of the historical past; they reflect time, area, historical situations of the toponym origin. On the other hand, the toponym history frequently helps to reveal the history of the nation itself. The word “toponymy” first appeared in English in 1876 since then, toponymy has come to replace “place-name” in professional discourse among geographers. It can be argued that the first toponymists were the storytellers and poets who explained the origin of specific place names as part of their tales; sometimes place-names served as the basis for the etiological legends. The process of folk etymology usually took over, whereby a false meaning was extracted from a name based on its structure or sounds. In toponymy there is a deficit of theory and methods which consider a linguistic analysis of toponym structure in parallel with a detailed cultural analysis of the socio-historical significance of toponyms and processes of toponymy. Documenting patterns of pristine toponymy, or toponymic knowledge in locations where people remember the locations and histories of people and events associated with extant place names, seems a worthwhile endeavour in linguistically pristine island environments, i.e. islands that were uninhabited prior to ceanization. As for the characteristic of geographical names, they are divided on official and unofficial toponyms. The principal research question for the study sought to establish whether the difference between official and unofficial toponyms and processes of toponymy in the island environments was a consequence of the degree of linguistic, cultural and ecological embeddedness of these toponyms and toponymic processes.
1. The president of our country N.Nazarbayev pays special attention to the usage of the English language and there are many different programs where the English language is in the centre of education. Nowadays, Kazakhstan has a policy of three languages and among them is the English language which is of great demand in our country and studying the English language is important according to the Law about Languages .
The long-interest attracted by toponyms can be explained not only by their unusual functions, mysterious origin of most of them, distinctions of their grammatical features from the other word class, i.e. appellatives, but, also by the fact that they are rich in information needed to solve ethno genetic problems. The role of toponyms as accurate landmarks grows considerably in the process of the establishment of information-oriented society. An important task is then the development of a unified toponymic service as well as thoroughly checked regional toponymic databanks. In these bilingual and multilingual conditions canonical lists of place-names in different languages and a system of transliterating place-names from one language to another are to be created. Place-names as well as other manifestations of the people’s spiritual culture, i.e. folklore, rites, believes etc. reflect peculiar national features and mentality. This makes protection of cultural heritage extremely important. The toponymy of English language represents to us the most astonishing linguistic richness and diversity As for the British place names it should be stated that the English toponyms was a complicated one. The result is that English place-names come from a variety of languages: possibly pre-British, British, Latin, Old English, and Old Norse of two varieties and Norman French. Each of these languages has contributed place names and influenced the form of existing place names.
In the annual massage delivered on November, 2014, President N. Nazarbayev noticed
about the important role of the English language. Good specialists as competitive translators are of great value .
The study of place names plays an important role in linguistic, archaelogacal and historical research. As for linguistic culture of toponymy it has the structure of semantic,lexical and gramatical meaning. During the investigation we found the definition like toponyms are the proper names of geographical objects, which impart the multifarious connotation including the linguistic and extra linguistic data. Toponym – geographical name proper noun applied to real world entity. Toponym – proper name of a place, both inhabited and uninhabited. Generally, in all definitions toponym is defined as proper noun. It should be applied to topographic feature, real world entities or place. The interest to the geographical place names and to its meaning was appeared in the earliest times of the human civilization. In the antique period the tradition to explain the toponyms was seen in the historical-geographical works.
However, in previous time it was difficult to find out the etymology of toponyms. The first description and allusion about place names was found in the
works of Herodotus “History”, Strabo “Geography”, and Pliny the Elder “Natural History”. As for the foreign toponymic study actively it was developed in the XX century. Many countries have developed their own toponymic school. Toponyms are deeply studied by prominent linguists such asRussian linguists, as V.I.Dal, A.V.Superanskaja, L.V.Uspensky N.A. Arystov, V.V. Bartold, G. E. Grum-Grzhymailo, G.A. Levshina, P. Мelioransky, P. Pallas, G. N. Potanin, V. V. Radlov, S. М. Tyan-Shansky and others were engaged in toponymic problems. The big contribution to studying English toponymy have brought the Swedish linguist E. Ekwall, the English linguist R. Coates, English toponymy-researcher М Gelling. Also toponyms were engaged in research such English and American linguists, as O.Padel, R. Ramsay, A.Smith, G. Stewart, V.Watson and many other scientists. In R. Coates’ research, studied features of toponyms Norman island, counties of Gempshir and Sussex, and in work “A new explanation of the name of London” has offered new etymology of the name “Londоn”. And M.Gelling was engaged in research of toponymy of counties Berkshire, Oxford and Shropshire.
Despite long history of researches and presence of powerful quantity of the works devoted to studying toponymy, still there is a set of the problems complicating interpretation toponymy, the questions at issue connected with definition of sources toponyms and demanding to more steadfast attention not only from linguists, but also historians.
Thus, the given theme is the most important in the process of studying lexicology and especially English onomastics and the diploma work will prove this fact. For object in view achievement it is necessary to carry out following problems: to consider typology toponymy, problems of toponymics, feature of those English toponymy which exist in territory of Great Britain and to carry out the analysis of place names. We shall try to show the contemporary problems dealing with the present theme especially in the sphere of studying lexicology. In conclusion we would like to say that the toponyms are presented of interest not only to linguistics, but also to history, geography, culture therefore the toponymics has long history of researches and existence of powerful number of the works devoted to studying of toponyms. Despite it, still there is a set of the problems complicating interpretation of toponyms, the controversial issues connected with definition of sources of toponyms and demanding to themselves closer attention not only from linguists, but also historians.
1.Қазақстан Республикасының «Білім туралы Заңы» 27 шілде 2007, №319.
2. Ekwall, E. English River-Names. Oxford, 2009, 125 p.
3. Топоров В. Н. Из области теоретической топономастики // 1962, № 6, С.23-27
4. Stewart, G. Names on the Globe. Oxford University Press, 1975, 194p.
5. Суперанская А. В. Что такое топонимика? М. 2007,180 c.
6. Cameron, Kenneth. English Place-Names. London: Methuen&Co. (6th, revised edition: 2002, 278p.
Аннотация: Трудно представить современный мир без географических названий. Каждая топонимика несет различную информацию: историческую, географическую, лингвистическую, поскольку географические названия являются свидетельствами исторических условий эпохи, когда они возникли, были сформированы и распространены в тех или иных странах. Термин «топоним» означает собственное существительное, название любого географический объект: реки, озера, моря, города, деревни, горы, острова, улицы, площади и т. д. Они появляются и функционируют в тесной связи с географией, историей и этнографией страны. Вот почему топонимика представляет собой ценный материал для лингвистики, поскольку она является не только отражением языка, но и надежным источником его истории. Топонимы предоставляют нам данные о прошлых миграциях той или иной нации, о контактах с другими народами, о характере расселения людей на новой территории, о географических особенностях этой территории.
Түйін: Қазіргі әлемді географиялық атауларсыз елестету қиын. Әрбір топонимия әртүрлі ақпаратқа ие: тарихи, географиялық, лингвистикалық, өйткені географиялық атаулар дәуірдің тарихи жағдайларының дәлелі болып табылады, олар түрлі елдерде қалыптасып, таратылды. «Топоним» термині өзінің аты-жөнін, кез келген географиялық объектінің атауы: өзендер, көлдер, теңіздер, қалалар, ауылдар, таулар, аралдар, көшелер, алаңдар және т.б. білдіреді. Олар еліміздің географиясына, тарихына және этнографиясына жақын келіп, жұмыс істейді. Сондықтан топонимика лингвистика үшін құнды материал болып табылады, себебі бұл тек тілдің көрінісі ғана емес, сонымен қатар оның тарихының сенімді көзі болып табылады. Топонимдер бізге өткен ұлт көшуіне, басқа елдермен байланысқа, жаңа аумақта адамдардың қоныс аудару сипатына, сондайақ осы аумақтың географиялық ерекшеліктеріне деректер береді.