И.А Олькова, М.Е. Какимова, А.О. Матина
Северо-Казахстанский государственный университет имени Манаша.Козыбаева,
г. Петропавловск, Республика Казахстан
iIrina_m_a@mail.ru, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
PECULIARITIES OF CREATING A COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENT AT THE
LESSON OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN THE FRAME OF UPDATED CURRICULUM
This article examines the study of the construction of a foreign language lesson within the framework of the updated content of education with an emphasis on creating a collaborative environment as a means of effective work at the lesson and a strong consolidation of the material. The objective of the research is the development of methods and techniques creating a collaborative environment. Special attention is paid to the study of the influence of group work on the general atmosphere in the classroom and the perception of information in the educational activity. In the course of the research, the methods of study, generalization, analysis, synthesis, observation, questionnaire, and experiment were used.
Key words: collaborative environment, updated curriculum of education, strategies of group work
The article is a review of the use of technology for creating a collaborative environment in the context of updated curriculum of education.
According to the constructivist theory (Hatti, 2009), the development of a student’s thinking occurs when he is given the opportunity to demonstrate preliminary knowledge, associate with the unknown, question, create new assumptions, discuss in the group, thus create new knowledge. The student should not be limited and be completely dependent on the teacher in gaining knowledge; he should himself obtain and discuss with the fellow practitioners new convictions. The student is involved in the process of exchanging thoughts and it turns out the joint acquisition and formation of knowledge. In such a situation, individual capable students can come to new knowledge in rather unique ways.
The organization of work with students on any joint activity creates feelings of responsibility and cohesion, thereby developing their critical thinking. In any joint work always helps the desire for knowledge and interpersonal skills. In the course of work, it is necessary to form groups taking into account individual psychological characteristics, depending on the level of learning and cognitive activity of students.
The following rules for effective building of the lesson are given:
1. the teacher should arouse the child’s interest in the subject and provide the ability to believe in your own strength and contribute to achieve success. It is necessary to use not only the personal qualities of the teacher, but also all sorts of pedagogical tricks. In order for a child to have faith in his/her own strength, the teacher will have to introduce a different system for his/her evaluation of results;
2. the program for such students should be broken down into a series of small steps. This stepby-step learning will allow the student to keep track of own progress;
3. the program should be designed so that it ensured rapid success. As a rule, students who have difficulties, have long experience of failure and frustration in their own capabilities and therefore of paramount importance the moment they realize that they can learn successfully;
4. the teacher and the student should work in close cooperation, providing the opportunity for feedback so that they can evaluate achievements and identify areas of difficulty.
A tactic that encourages a learner’s interest in a subject is a collaborative environment.
A collaborative learning is an educational approach in teaching and learning, which is a group of students who work together to solve a problem, complete a task or create a product, so you need to give students more autonomy when making decisions, and become an observer and coordinator of students’ actions [1, 24].
The collaborative class is a class in which the teacher understands the measure of his responsibility, not limited only by the framework of the subject being taught. The success of learning and teaching is to create an atmosphere that allows an individual to feel free and safe in the learning process. Each child, coming to the lesson, carries with it some personal problems: family, poorly learned lesson, learning goals that he did not achieve.
Along with negative emotions, the student comes with an emotional outburst: a lesson passed to «excellent», a well-written essay, a well-solved math problem and in order to switch to another lesson, he needs time. Often this «time» the teacher does not provide the student. As a result, at best, such a student will fall out at the beginning of the lesson, possibly from half the lesson, but at worst from the whole lesson. In order to create a welcoming atmosphere in the classroom, to switch and focus attention, a collaborative environment must be a necessary condition for each lesson. The basis of the collaborative environment is trust. Creating a confidential environment in a lesson is a large percentage of the success of a lesson [2, 15].
At the beginning of the research the following questions have been asked:
-Do I know the students well, besides the information that a teacher possess in the process of their learning the subject?;
-How free are the rules and norms of behavior in my class?;
-Do pupils in my class feel comfortable working with each other?;
-Do pupils need to engage in conversation with each other in the classroom?; -How often is laughter in my class?
And if all questions have an affirmative answer, then a collaborative environment is created.
The best way to make up a collaborative environment is group working. Success of the work as a whole will depend on how well and successfully the group is formed. The size of the group varies, depending on the content and nature of the work, it ranges from 2 to 6 people; in larger groups, the active work of all members of the group is not ensured.
The rules for organizing groups are found more useful and effective:
-groups can be created in various ways. Sometimes teachers (and students) are simply asked to work with colleagues (friends), in other cases randomly selected groups are formed. Sometimes groups are created according to the specific strengths of individuals;
-no matter how a group is formed, it is necessary to know that any newly formed group of
people takes time to adapt and adapt to the characteristics of each other’s character, skills and styles;
-successful groups learn to take advantage of these differences, pinpoint them at an early stage, and organize group activities accordingly;
-the stage of formation is not limited to the beginning of the work of the group. As members of the group become aware of each other, the dynamics of the group’s work will gradually change, and the group will need to respond to such changes, adjusting the work as necessary.
We have highlighted next rules of work in groups:
-group activity involves the solution of more complex problems than those that can be solved individually.
-any team should be guided by a general set of rules that all its members should know and understand. This is necessary so that each group member knows what is expected of him, how his work will be distributed and supported, and how results will be achieved [3, 686].
Besides, the role of teachers plays a significant role. Group work should be organized and supported by teachers, and time should be allowed for discussion after the assignment has been completed. Teachers should support effective group work and promote positive outcomes. Working with the class should include a discussion of what will be achieved and what is planned to learn, and how the training of the entire class is related to the tasks for working in groups. During the discussion, you need to remind students about the skills, strategies, and rules they should use.
The intervention of the teacher should be delicate and model the practice recommended by the students. Ensuring team collaboration may require more support from the teacher in the initial stages. At the end of the lesson, the teacher should encourage students to reflect on the process and the results of group work. The results of cooperative work in groups. Well-organized group work contributes to the development of social interaction between students, skills for effective communication and problem solving. This ultimately encourages students to actively participate in their own learning.
Some series of lessons were observed and 3 lessons were conducted. One of the lesson did not include the elements of collaborative working.
After studying the theoretical material and conducting an experiment, we came to the following conclusion. Creating a collaborative environment has a number of positive features:
1. learning is an active process whereby students assimilate information and associate its learning with the knowledge they possess;
2. training requires solving problems that are possible subject to the active participation of his /her peers, processing and summarizing information, and not mechanical memorization and repetition;
3. students benefit from getting to know the point of view of different people;
4. learning is improved in the social environment in which students talk. During this intellectual gymnastics, students create the basis and meaning of the reasoning;
5. in a collaborative learning environment, students develop both socially and emotionally, as they listen to different points of view and are forced to express and defend their ideas. In doing so, students begin to create their own unique conceptual framework, rather than relying solely on experts or a text framework.
Thus, in the context of collaborative learning, students have the opportunity to communicate with their peers, represent and defend ideas, share a variety of beliefs, question other concepts, and take an active part.
For example, the exercise Find a new friend was conducted, which we set ourselves the task of creating pairs for further work in the lesson, as well as an additional point of exercise is to increase mood and decrease fatigue. The main condition of the problem was that the formed pairs the maximum should show that they are satisfied with their partner, regardless of who they were with each other before the lesson. The exercise “Find a new friend” allowed us to create favorable and welcoming atmosphere in the classroom.
A lesson may be started in different ways. One of the receptions is the Good wishes reception, when the children give good wishes to each other. Such trainings as Feel a reliable shoulder friend! , Wish ball, Circle of joy, Say hello brings pupils closer to each other, give them the opportunity to open up, overcome fear, insecurity, and students feel more confident and more comfortable working in groups. 
Thus, when creating a collaborative environment, applying group work on their lessons, we would like to note that the training and cognitive motivation of students decreases the level of anxiety, fear to be unsuccessful, incompetent in solving some problems, in the group above learning ability , the efficiency of learning and updating knowledge, with the joint task mutual learning, as each student contributes to the overall work, group work helps to improve the psychological climate in the classroom, development of mutual respect, ability to dialogue and argue their point view.
Practice shows that learning together is not only easier and more interesting, but also much more efficient. Moreover, it is important that this efficiency concerns not only academic success of students, their intellectual development, but also moral. Help a friend, solve any problems together, share the joy success or the bitterness of failure, it is also natural how to laugh, sing, rejoice of life. The main idea of learning in collaboration is to study together, not just something perform together! Collaboration students promote each other’s success in the following way:
Picture 1. Results of collaborative learning
1. provide and accept help and support, and this is not only about help in learning, but also about purely human, friendly participation;
2. exchange information, i.e. all that necessary to complete the task;
3. digest the information communicated by comrades accurately and impartially, and try to use them with maximum benefit for themselves. Oral explanations thinking and summarizing information, transferring your knowledge and skills to others — All this leads to the systematization of knowledge, to their more conscious assimilation and to willingness to make a personal contribution to achieve a common goal. Critically listening to the explanation of the group mate, the participant gets the opportunity to add to their own and other people’s knowledge ;
4. teach each other to lead discussions and argue their point of view. Intellectual conflicts develop curiosity, encourage the mastery of knowledge and to rethinking them, to a deeper penetration into studied problem, and also form many other useful qualities and skills;
5. have a clear motivation. The desire to master the knowledge strengthened by collective work in the name of a common goal; (picture 1)
Students learn more effectively with active participation in the learning process. Researchers say that, despite the subject, students working in small groups tend to learn more about what is being taught and retain the resulting knowledge rather than the same information presented in other educational formats. Students who work in collaborative groups also seem more satisfied with their classes. Group work is effective when it stimulates students to ponder and discuss the information received, to challenge and understand the opinions of others.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the teacher is responsible for ensuring that each child is comfortable in his lesson, that each child can speak and be heard and understood, so that the children understand that they can freely ask the teacher and their peers questions and expose in doubt. Human sensitivity, teacher’s enthusiasm, an individual approach to each child, the creation of conditions for the development of the personality of each student by the teacher — these are the keys to a healthy working atmosphere in the classroom.
The conclusion is preliminary, further research will be continued and have more extended character. However, the general conclusions are given and they prove the necessity to apply the methods of creating a collaborative environment at the lesson of foreign language.
References 1. Дьяченко В. К. «Сотрудничество в обучении. О коллективном способе учебной работы». — М.: Наука, 1991. — С. 24–57, 60–81.– (Мастерство учителя: идеи советы, предложения).
2. Руководство для учителя, АОО «Назарбаев Интеллектуальные школы», 2012 3. Ежемесячный научный журнал «Молодой ученый» № 6(86)/ 2015.- с. 686-687.
4. Хайрушева Ж.С. «Сборник упражнений и игр для создания коллаборативной среды в учебном процессе».- Тараз, 2015
5. Рассел Джесси. Формы организации обучения. //Санкт-Петербург. -2013. 57 с.
Создание коллаборативной среды на уроках по иностранному языку необходимо применять систематически. Проведенное исследование подтвердило, что совместная работа, а именно групповая является ключом к успеху и достижению поставленной цели. Нельзя не заметать, что при кажущейся многоаспектности и обширности исследований еще многие свойства и механизмы создания коллаборативной среды на уроках недостаточно познаны.
Жоғарыда айтылғандардан шет тіл сабақтарында бірлескен ортаны құру жүйелі түрде қолданылуы керек деген тұжырым жасауға болады. Зерттеу командалық жұмысты, атап айтқанда, топ — табысқа жетудің және мақсатқа жетудің кілті болып табылатынын растады. Зерттеудің көп өлшемділігі мен ауқымдылығын ескере отырып, аудиторияда бірлескен ортаны құрудың көптеген қасиеттері және тетіктері жеткілікті түрде анықталмаған.