А.Y. Ismagulova, E.M. Zakirova
candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor,Dean of Philology and Pedagogy
faculty, Sh. Ualikhanov Kokshetau State University, Kokshetau town, the Republic of Kazakhstan, е-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org master of pedagogical sciences, senior teacher of Foreign Languages Department,Sh. Ualikhanov Kokshetau State University, Kokshetau town, the Republic of Kazakhstan,еmail:email@example.com
ENGLISH LANGUAGE LESSON FOR STUDENTS WITH IMPAIRED HEARING
The article is concerned with the issue of the relevance of teaching a foreign language to the students with impaired hearing and speech. There is an analysis of interrelation between mastering a native language with impaired hearing and mastering a foreign language with normal hearing.The basic methods of teaching English and the most important components of the English language lesson for students with hearing and speech impairments are determined.
Key words: hearing impaired, English dactyl, phonetic exercises, development of visual perception, lexical units (LUs).
A foreign language is one of the general educational disciplines in pedagogical literature, but it is very different from other subjects. The specificity of teaching this subject is in its speech orientation. Considering the fact that hearing impaired students have features of speech development of various degrees, the specificity of teaching a foreign language in this case is manifested in the methods of conducting the classes themselves, in their construction, in the methods of presenting educational material, in the techniques that ensure its learning.
Teaching hearing impaired English learners is built on the basis of a synthesis of approaches and methods used to teach the mother tongue to the students with impaired hearing and to teach a foreign language to the students with good hearing.
The works of such scholars as A.A. Alkhazishvili, V.D. Arakin, V.A. Artemov, I.A. Zimnyaya, Z.I. Klychnikova, A.A. Leontiev, A.A. Mirolyubov, E.I. Passov, S.K. Folomkina, L.V. Shcherba, and others represent the modern Russian scientific school of teaching foreign languages.
Theoretical and methodological results obtained by these scientists rely both on studies of the linguistic, psychological, psycholinguistic directions, and on studies, directly aimed at the formation of practical methods of teaching a foreign language.
In recent years, based on the analysis of a number of issues of legal order, positive and negative aspects of qualification education, taking into account the recent achievements of remedial pedagogy and foreign experience, a number of defectology scholars have put forward arguments in favor of an evolutionary reform of the national system of special education.
In a systematic way, these issues have been covered in the works of E.L. Goncharova, O.I. Kukushkina, N.N. Malofeeva, E.A. Strebeleva, N.D. Shmatko and others. With all the variants of possible implementation of the ongoing reform, the laws derived from the scientific analysis of the process of mastering speech in case of hearing impairments will remain the basis for training people with such impairments.
Consequently, teaching a foreign language to children with hearing and speech impairments can be based on the provisions defining the entire set of methods and techniques used by the current system of special education for the deaf and hearing impaired.
The theory of deaf-and-dumb pedagogy has long been interested in the relationships that exist between mastering the native language with hearing impairment and mastering a foreign language with ordinary hearing. It is known that the similarity between these two processes is generated by the fact that both processes take place in conditions of purposeful, specially organized language teaching [1, 75].We can explore the analysis of this idea in the writings of R.M. Boskis, L.S. Vygotsky , Zh.I. Shif and other researchers.
In methodical terms, K.G. Korovinpaid special attention to the given similarity in his works. This meant the following: on the one hand, the methods and techniques used in the special teaching of hearing impaired to the native speech can be efficiently transferred to the foreign language teaching of the students with impaired hearing. So, the native language dactyl can be effectively used while learning English. It will help to remember the pronunciation of a foreign word. Along with the Russian-language dactyl, it is possible to use the English language of symbols when children are asked to say a word in English using English dactyl. On the other hand, according to K.G. Korovin, when students with impaired hearing start to learn a foreign language, they already possess the experience to purposefully master the language with impaired auditory function [3, 112]. They transfer their available skills to the process of learning a foreign language.
The main factors determining the content of learning English are:
• actual amount of teaching hours;
• language learning rate available to students with impaired hearing;
• data defining the preferred areas of further use of acquired language knowledge for such students.
For obvious reasons, teaching a foreign language to the students with hearing impairments cannot be conducted through the direct use of existing methods applied in teaching students with normal hearing. The same is true for programs. The pace of learning English in general and the pace of work in the classroom in particular is reduced due to the fact that each lexical unit introduced in the classroom must be uttered to each student (and more than once per lesson) to form a student’s stable speech kinesthesia. Both objects and actions are uttered.
Due to the fact that students with hearing impairment are distinguished by insufficient memory, slow process of concept formation, reduced ability to receive, process, store and use information, the volume of lexical and grammatical material for receptive and productive material is reduced [4, 256]. In addition, hearing impaired students have significant difficulties in the process of pronunciation the sounds of foreign words.
For the formation of pronunciation at the beginning of the educational process, phonetic exercises are used, the methodology of which is borrowed from the method of teaching reading to children of elementary school. Such phonetic exercise are aimed at the development of speech apparatus. At the later stages of teaching, phonetic exercises are used based on lexical and grammatical material.
The development of visual perception is of great importance to compensate for hearing impairment; therefore, each lesson should be provide with visualization, visual supports, memos, sets of schemes, tables [5, 372]. For advanced students, when listening, visual supports are removed, and the work is performed on an auditory basis. For weaker students and for students with a high degree of hearing loss, the work is carried out on an audial-visual basis.
Didactic games and playing exercises have a great influence on the motivation of the educational process, on the development of linguistic skills and the achievement of many educational goals .
To relieve tension and fatigue, as well as for the coordination of motor and speech activity, physical exercises are conducted; for example, a step by step counting (to pronounce numerals making steps).
For the development of dialogic speech, to activate lexical material, the method of “Mutual training” is used: when two students work in the “teacher-student” mode [7, 58]. After the “teacher” gives an assessment to the “student”, an exchange of positions takes place.
Thus, we can cite a number of provisions, which, in essence, are the starting point for the teaching of a foreign language to the students with impaired hearing:
1) It is necessary to rely more on visibility taking into account the special role of visual perception with impaired hearing in the learning process [8, 17]. For this purpose, it is possible to use all kinds of graphic material, educational texts, etc.;
2) Special attention should be paid to the process of writing. The active use of writing is the most important means of teaching and controlling the degree of mastering a language;
3) Decisive methodological meaning in lexical and grammatical work is based on a spoken English-language model, simultaneous mastering of the lexical and grammatical meaning of a word, comprehension of these meanings in word combinations, sentences, contexts;
4) Taking into consideration the special importance of reproductive mastering of the oral speech by hearing impaired in order to master their receptive way (in the form of hearing and visual perception), as well as language as an integral system, it is necessary to pay attention to the process ofpronunciationin the learning language;
5) Within the limits allowed by the study time, work should be carried out to develop hearing-visual and auditory perception of speech in English, using the methods and techniques from the practice of teaching the hearing impaired to the native language;
6) Considering the fact that hearing impaired students receive a significantly greater psychophysical stress than students with ordinary hearing do, it is advisable to make active use of playingand entertaining exercises.
Based on the foregoing, we highlight the following main stages of the English language lesson for students with hearing and speech impairments:
1) The first stage of the lesson:
Speech warm-up — training and correction of pronunciation skills. With this purpose, the teacher addressing a student by his/her name, clearly says: “…, wha-at les-son do we ha-ve now?”, then asks other students: “…, what sea-son is it now? ”,“ …, ask…,wha-at da-te is it to-day? ”, etc. In this way, it is necessary to give students some time to prepare for the lesson, to carry out speech warm-up, training of hearing and speech. Answering quite easy and familiar questions that the teacher has clearly asked, the students with hearing and speech impairments feel more confident, calm, and become disposed to speech activity and prepared for the English language lesson;
2) The second stage of the lesson:
After the introductory training of speech, it is necessary to intensify speech patterns, grammatical structures and LUs, studied in the previous lessons. For this purpose, it is possible to use various games to revise the studied material;
3) The third stage of the lesson:
After revising and repeating the themes of the previous lesson, the main stage of the lesson begins –introduction of the new LUs, grammatical structures and speech patterns. At this stage, it is important for the teacher to accompanynew information with a visual illustration. The use of handouts (cards, charts, tables, etc.), didactic materials (books, manuals, etc.), and computer presentations will allow students with hearing and speech impairments to learn new information better [9, 23]. To activate the new LUs, grammatical structures and speech patterns in the spoken language, the teacher needs to use active playful teaching methods. Various games (creative, lexical, etc.) will allow students with hearing and speech impairments to activate new structures and LUs in their oral speech;
4) The fourth stage of the lesson:
Physical warm-up is mandatory at the English language lessons for the students with hearing and speech impairments. Their fatigue in the second half of the lesson increases, and therefore performing physical exercises will allow them to distract a little and cheer up;
5) The fifth stage of the lesson:
At the end of the lesson, the teacher must give homework for the next lesson, andsummarize the lesson. The teacher should ask each student some questions about the lesson. The students should continue these phrases: I knew …, I learned…, I can…,It was interesting to know that …, It was difficult to… The students should think about what they have learned and what new skills they have acquired.
Summing up, we should note the fact that every teacher working with students with hearing and speech impairments, needs to know and take into account all the psychophysical features of such students. The lesson should be constructed in such a way that all new information is available and understandable to students with hearing and speech impairments; everything should be accompanied by clarity or actions.
Therefore, while working with students with hearing and speech impairments a teacher of the English language must observe the following steps:
• training and correction of pronunciation skills;
• use of visual materials throughout the lesson, especially introducing new LUs, grammatical structures and speech patterns;
• use of active game methods of teaching a foreign language; • physical exercises during the lesson; • reflection at the end of the lesson.
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А.Е. Исмагулова, Э.М. Закирова
Урок английского языка для обучающихся с нарушениями слуха и речи
Кокшетаускийгосударственный университет им. Ш. Уалиханова,
г. Кокшетау, Казахстан
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А.Е. Исмагулова, Э.М. Закирова
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