PROCESS AND LOCAL CULTURAL IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION
Erkinova Guldana Kurbanbaykyzy
4-year student of the specialty “World Economy”,
Kazakh National University named after al-Farabi
АННОТАЦИЯ .Концепция глобализации является одной из часто используемых концепций в последние годы. Хотя среди ученых существует много разных мнений о появлении глобализации и общем определении глобализации. Однако существует общее мнение, что глобализация — это постоянно расширяющийся динамический процесс. Концепция глобализации, получившая значительный импульс, особенно с развитием средств массовой информации, затронула все страны мира, как бы получив статус экономического, социального, политического и культурного измерения. Глобализация в окружении своих принципов ослабляет и устраняет чужие, в этом процессе культуры маленьких стран подражают культуры больших государств. В процессе глобализации, когда культуры принуждаются к изменениям, сначала обнаруживаются локальные различия и старые культуры разбиваются на новые формы, а затем люди объединяются в единую культуру, которая ведёт к всемирной культуре. Наблюдается, что во многих странах процесс глобализации создает новые обычаи и привычки со ссылкой на западную культуру. Культура является наиболее заметной областью влияния глобализации. Культура содержит такие элементы, как язык, религия, традиции и искусство. На каждый из этих элементов, в частности, на культуру, значительное влияние оказал процесс глобализации. Когда рассматривается процесс глобализации, видно, что этот процесс влияет на элементы культуры как положительно, так и отрицательно. В этом исследовании дается общая информация о концепции глобализации. В продолжении есть попытка рассказать о положительном и отрицательном влиянии глобализации на местную культуру. Кроме того, предоставлена информация для защиты местных ценностей.
ABSTRACT. Globalization is one of the concepts used frequently in recent years. The scientists have been done different views about emergence of globalization and definition of globalization also, it is true that on ever expanding process of globalization. In particular accelerated the development of the mass media globalization, economic, social, political and cultural influence throughout the world by winning a dimension. One of the most obvious is the culture of the domain. Culture, incorporates language, religion, customs, traditions, items such as art. Each of these items, especially culture, was significantly influenced by the globalization process. When we look at the globalization process, it is seen that cultural elements are affected both positively and negatively. In this study, the concept of globalization is given in general and the concept of globalization is examined. After that, the positive and negative effects of globalization on the local culture were tried to be mentioned. In addition, information is provided to protect local values.
Ключевые слова: глобализация, процесс глобализации, культура, местная культура, глобальная культура.
Keywords: Globalization, globalization process culture, local culture, global culture
One of the most important phenomena of recent years is globalization. The process of globalization, which gained significant momentum with the development of mass media, has affected today’s economic, political, social and cultural dimensions at different rates. This study, which focuses on the effects of globalization on local culture, consists of two parts. In the first part, the concept of globalization is discussed theoretically and its status in the historical process is addressed and some approaches to globalization are given. In the second part, the effects of globalization on local culture were tried to be explained with some examples from Turkey. Culture, language, religion, traditions, customs, art, Customs and customs are transferred from generation to generation. It is also one of the elements that make up the nation. Therefore, the preservation of cultural values is very important for the survival of the nation-state. The aim of this study is to explain the concept of globalization and the changes that globalization has created on culture by moving from Turkey and to give information about how local values should be protected and why they should be protected using theoretical analysis method. The concept of globalization means increasing global integration and solidarity in terms of economic, social, technological and political aspects. There are approaches that accept that globalization exists and reject its existence. If approaches that accept the existence of the phenomenon of globalization are to be followed, it is necessary to clarify when the beginning is.
Although it is not known exactly when the state or process of globalization began, it can be said that globalization has a history as old as the migration of people from their places to other places, the domestication of passenger animals, the establishment of large markets, the discovery of new regions using the Silk Road and sea routes. However, the beginning of the concept to become operational in its present sense was with the use of “the Economist” magazine on April 4, 1959. In 1962, Canadian sociology professor Marshall McLuhan used the concept of “global village” to understand the place of new communication technologies in our lives with a text he wrote.
The phenomenon of globalization gained great momentum and spread in the post-1945-50 period, and especially after 1980. In economic terms, the volume of international trade and the pace of international capital flows have reached unprecedented levels. By the 2000s, the emergence of internet networks by means of computers, mobile phones and tablets, the easy communication and access of many people and societies, accelerated the spread of globalization. There are five different phases in the emergence of globalization according to Roland Robertson
A-Formation Phase: 15 In Europe. 18 from the beginning of the century. it lasted until the middle of the century. At this stage, Nation lands gradually emerged and the transnational system of the Middle Ages collapsed. The activity area of the Catholic Church has expanded. An understanding of the individual has begun to emerge.
B-Initial Phase: 18. it lasted from the mid-century to the 1870s. The official understanding of international relations developed during this period and the individual consciousness was fully formed during this period.
C-Ascension phase: in this phase, the concept of “modernity” has started to become a theme for the first time. Ideas of national and personal identity have been put forward. Several non-European societies have been admitted to the international community. Globalization in communication has begun to increase and global competitions have come into play
D-The Struggle for Hegemony: it started in the mid-1920s and lasted until the end of the 1960s. The league of nations and then the United Nations were established. Conflicting conceptions of modernity emerged and the third world began to become apparent.
E-uncertainty phase: started in the late 1960s and entered into crisis in the early 1990s. During this period, the Cold War ended and the concept of rights and freedoms came to the agenda.
Globalisation is the name of a new era in which traditional nation-states have lost importance or even become a dysfunctional unit in the global economy. Extreme globalists argue that economic globalization has changed the structures of national economies by creating international networks of production, trade and finance. According to extreme globalists, markets are now more powerful than States. Cooperation between countries has become easier thanks to increased global communication. Extreme globalists base their views largely on the liberal and especially neoliberal approach formed after the 1980s. In this context, they argue that free market economy will benefit the individual in the micro sense and provide the general balance of the economy in the macro sense and that markets will come into equilibrium spontaneously. They believe in the necessity of privatization activities. They support the process of globalization and advocate for further deepening and expansion of the process. Because basic power and authority are in the hands of capital .In a cultural sense, extreme globalists say there is a global popular culture, and most people embrace it. They argue that people who are rigidly committed to fixed political identities are gradually declining and are becoming predisposed to global culture because of this decrease . For extreme globalists, the fact that only some regions in the world are outside the scope of globalization does not mean that they are not affected at all by globalization. It is impossible to find a piece of the world that has never been affected by globalization.
There can be no analysis of globalization as good or bad, but it can be said that it is an inevitable process. No country can completely shut itself down to globalization. However, not every country or society is affected by the phenomenon of globalization at the same rate. This is because there are economic, social, social and technological differences between them. The most obvious result of globalization is the ostentatious consumption culture. Consumption culture means increasing cultural exchange and interaction among the people of the world and causes changes in local culture. His endless passion for shopping, advertising and discount campaigns drive people to spend, even if they don’t have money. There are high-limit credit cards that support this, the lure of installment shopping, bank loans and so on. People are also drifting in pursuit of this current. Psychological problems, violence, suicide, domestic conflict, divorce and murder may occur due to excessive borrowing.
The concept of nationalism has been a kind of anti-globalization. However, it is not very successful in the face of global currents. As the influence of the current increases, reductions in the influence of the nation-state are observed.
1. European Commission. (2013, June 13). The euro. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/euro/
2. US Census. (2018, June 27). State & county quickfacts. Retrieved from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/00000.html
3. Baughn, C. C, and Buchanan. M.A. (2017, November). Cultural protectionism. Business Horizons, 44(6), 5-16.
4. Vidal, J. (2015, June 19). Iceland resumes fin whale hunting after two-year break. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2013/jun/19/iceland-fin-whale-hunting-greenpeace